In this book we shall study mainly the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and its companions. The remains of this hairy elephant one has found up to the shores of the Arctic Sea. One has also recovered them on the islands of the Arctic Sea, hundreds of miles above the Arctic Circle. Today, the muskox and reindeer are hardly able to survive up there. Why, then, has the mammoth been able to live in the Far North? Why is not grazing now up there anymore? Why has it perished?

This tusker has grazed in the Far North together with the wild horse, the Asiatic wild ass, the saiga antelope, the camel, the woolly rhinoceros, the bison, the musk ox and the reindeer. In what kind of a climate have they lived up there? On what kind of a plant cover have they grazed? The remains of the woolly mammoth one has found in the frozen ground, together with fossil ice or "stone-ice". One has also found a whole woolly mammoth, "in the flesh". It was standing upright in the frozen ground. Why? How has this elephant gotten into the permanently frozen ground? - What do you think?